ISBN: 978-0-8138-1273-1

Hardcover 616 pages

June 2010, Wiley-Blackwell



Water Properties

in Food, Health, Pharmaceutical and Biological Systems



Edited by:

David S. Reid,
University of California, Davis, USA
Tanaboon Sajjaanantakul, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand
 Peter J. Lillford,
Universities of Birmingham and York, UK
Sanguansri Charoenrein, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand


Water Properties in Food, Health, Pharmaceutical and Biological Systems: ISOPOW 10 focuses on the comprehension of the properties of water in foods, enriched by the approaches from polymer and materials sciences, and by the advances of analytical techniques. This comprehensive book covers the topics presented at the 10th International Symposium on the Properties of Water (ISOPOW) held in Bangkok, Thailand in 2007, including water dynamics in various systems, the role of water in functional food and nano-structured biomaterials.


Table of Contents 

PART 1 Invited Speakers and Oral Presentations

Water Mobility / Dynamics

and Its Application in Food and Pharmaceutical Systems


Invited Speakers

1. Complementary Aspects of Thermodynamics, Non/Equilibrium Criteria and Water Dynamics for the Development of Foods and Ingredients.
M. P. Buera.
Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

2. Water Mobility in Solid Pharmaceuticals, as Determined by NMR, Isothermal Sorption and Dielectric Relaxation Measurements.
S. Yoshioka and Y. Aso.
National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan.

Oral Presentations

3. The Effect of Water and Fat Content on the Enthalpy of Dissolution of Model Food Powders: a Thermodynamic Insight.
A. Marabi, A. Raemy, A. Burbidge, R. Wallach, and I. S. Saguy.
Nestlé Research Center, Switzerland.

4. ‘Solvent Water’ Concept Simplifies Mathematical Modelling in Fermenting Dough, a Multi-Phase Semisolid Food.
S. M. Loveday and R. J. Winger.
Massey University, New Zealand.

5. Microdomain Distributions in Food Matrices: Glass Transition Temperature, Water Mobility and Reaction Kinetics Evidences in Model Dough Systems.
Y. Kou.
General Mills, Inc. Riverside Technical Center, USA.


Water Essence and the Stability of Food and Biological Systems


Invited Speakers

6. Effect of Combined Physical Stresses on Cells: Role of Water.
J.-M. Perrier-Cornet, M. Moussa, H. Simonin, L. Beney, and P. Gervais.
Université de Bourgogne, France.

7. Soft Condensed Matter: A Perspective on the Physics of Food States & Stability.
T. P. Labuza, T. J. Labuza, K. M. Labuza, and P. S. Labuza.
University of Minnesota, USA.

8. Antiplasticization of Food Polymer Systems by Low-Molecular Mass Diluents.
C. C. Seow.
FoodTech Consultancy, Malaysia.

Oral Presentations.

9. Freeze-Drying of Lb.coryniformis Si3 – Focus on Water.
Å. Schoug, J. Schnürer, and S. Håkansson.
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.

10. Water Sorption Properties and Stability of Inclusion Complexes of Thymol and Cinnamaldehyde with b-Cyclodextrins.
P. A. Ponce, M. P. Buera, and B. E. Elizalde.
Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

11. Beyond Water: Water-Like Functions of Other Biological Compounds in Waterless Systems.
B. Bhandari.
University of Queensland, Australia.

12. Water Sorption and Transport in Dry Crispy Bread Crust.
M. B. J. Meinders, N. H. van Nieuwenhuijzen, R. H. Tromp, R. J. Hamer and T. van Vliet.
T.I. Food and Nutrition, Netherland.

13. Water State and Distribution during Storage of Soy Bread with and without Almond.
A. Lodi and Y. Vodovotz.
The Ohio State University, USA.

14. Phase Separation of Ice Crystals in Starch-Based Systems during Freezing and Effects on Moisture Content and Starch Glass Transition.
T. Tran, K. Piyachomkwan, and K. Sriroth.
Kasetsart University, Thailand.

15. Carrot Fibre as a Carrier in Spray Drying of Fructose.
K. Cheuyglintase and K. R. Morison.
Rajamongala University of Technology Tunyaburi, Thailand.


Microstructured and Nanostructured Changes in Food

Invited Speakers.

16. Taking the Measure of Water.
D. S. Reid.
University of California, Davis, USA.

17. Rehydration Modeling of Food Particulates Utilizing Principles of Water Transport in Porous Media.
S. Saguy, O. Troygot, A. Marabi, and R. Wallach.
Institute of Biochemistry, Israel.

18. Protein Hydration in Structure Creation.
P. J. Lillford and A.-M. Hermansson.
University of Birmingham, UK.

19. Water Partitioning in Colloidal Systems as Determined by NMR.
P. Chinachoti and P. Chatakanonda.
University of Massachusetts, USA.

20. Physical Changes in Confectionery Products Caused by the Availability of Water, with a Special Focus on Lactitol Crystallization.
M. H. Lim, B. Lampen, L. F. Siow, and T. Rades.
University of Otago, New Zealand.

Oral Presentations.

21. Entrapment of Probiotic Bacteria in Frozen Cryoprotectants and Viability in Freeze-Drying.
Y. H. Roos and K. S. Pehkonen.
University College Cork, Ireland.

22. Fracture Behaviour of Biopolymer Films Prepared from Aqueous Solutions.
I. Yakimets, S. S. Paes, N. Wellner, and J. R. Mitchell.
University of Nottingham, UK.

Biomaterial Sciences:
Water in Stability and Delivery of Active Biomolecules


Invited Speakers

23. The Plasticization-Antiplasticization Threshold of Water in Microcrystalline Cellulose. A Perspective Based on Bulk Free Volume.
S. P. Chamarthy, F. X. Diringer, and R. Pinal.
Purdue University, USA.

24. Understanding the Role of Water in Non-Aqueous Pharmaceutical Systems.
B. D. Anderson, S. S. Rane, and T. Xiang.
University of Kentucky, USA.

25. Crystallization, Collapse and Glass Transition in Low Water Food Systems.
Y. H. Roos.
University College Cork, Ireland.

26. Carbohydrates in Amorphous States: Molecular Packing, Nanostructure and Interaction with Water.
J. Ubbink.
Nestlé Research Center, Switzerland.

27. Ice Crystallization in Gels and Foods Manipulated by Polymer Network.
N. Murase, S. Yamada, and N. Ijima.
Tokyo Denki University, Japan.

28. Marine Inspired Water Structured Biomaterials.
A.-M. Hermansson, P. Olofsson, S. Ekstedt, M. Pihl, and P. Gatenholm.
SIK/ Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.


PART 2 Poster Presentations


Role of Water Mobility / Dynamics in Food and Pharmaceutical Systems

29. Another Unusual Property of Water: It Will Increase the Glass Transition Temperature of a Glassy Polymer.
S. P. Chamarthy and R. Pinal.
Purdue University, USA.

30. Molecular Mobility Interpretation of Water Sorption Isotherms of Food Materials by Means of Gravimetric NMR.
W. P. Weglarz, M. Witek, C. Inoue, H. van As, and J. van Duynhoven.
Unilever Food and Health Research Institute, The Netherlands.

31. Kinetics of Enthalpy Relaxation in Corn Syrup-Sucrose Mixtures.
B. R. Bhandari and R. W. Hartel.
University of Queensland, Australia.

32. Development of Novel Phase Transition Measurement Device for Solid Food Materials: Thermal Mechanical Compression Test (TMCT).
Y. Liu, P. Intipuniya, T. T. Truong, W. Zhou, and B. Bhandari.
University of Queensland, Australia.

33. 1H NMR Studies of Molecular Mobility in Potato Systems in Relation to Non-Enzymatic Browning.
N. C. Acevedo, C. Schebor, and M. P. Buera.
Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

34. Non-Enzymatic Browning Reaction and Enthalpy Relaxation of Glassy Foods.
K. Tsuji, K. Kawai, M. Watanabe, and T. Suzuki.
Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Japan.

35. Film Forming Ability of Duck Egg White and Its Water Vapor Barrier Property.
W. Garnjanagoonchorn, A. Yimjaroenpornsakul, N. Poovarodom, and S. Praditdoung.
Kasetsart University, Thailand.

36. Water Vapor Permeability of Chitosan and Methoxy Poly(ethylene glycol)-β-poly(e-caprolactone) Blend Homogeneous Films.
N. Niamsa, N. Morakot, and Y. Baimark.
Mahasarakham University, Thailand.

37. Ice Formation in the Concentrated Aqueous Glucose Solutions.
P. Thanatuksorn, K. Kajiwara, N. Murase, and F. Franks.
Tokyo University of Technology, Japan.

38. Effects of Sodium and Potassium Ion on the Viscosities in the Ternary System Sodium/Potassium Chloride-Glucose-Water.
M. Soga, K. Kurosaki, and K. Kajiwara.
Tokyo University of Technology, Japan.

39. Comparison of Water Sorption and Crystallization Behavior of Freeze-Dried Lactose, Lactitol, Maltose and Maltitol.
K. Jouppila, M. Lähdesmäki, P. Laine, M. Savolainen, and R. A. Talja.
University of Helsinki, Finland.

40. Sorption Behavior of Extruded Rice Starch in Presence of Glycerol.
J. Enrione, S. Hill, J. Mitchell, and F. Pedreschi.
Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Chile.

41. Water State and Mobility Affect Mechanical Properties of Coffee Beans.
P. Pittia, G. Sacchetti, P. Rocculi, L. Venturi, M. Cremonini, and M. D. Rosa.
University of Teramo, Italy.

42. Effect of Water Activity on the Release Characteristics of Encapsulated Flavor.
A. Soottitantawat, H. Yoshii, and T. Furuta.
Chulalongkorn University, Thailand.

43. Water and Protein Modifier Effects on the Phase Transitions and Microstructure of Mungbean Starch Granule.
P. Hongsprabhas and K. Israkarn.
Kasetsart University, Thailand.

44. Evaluation of the Disintegration and Diffusion of Pharmaceutical Solid Matrixes by Image Processing and Non-Linear Dynamics.
D. I. Téllez-Medina, A. Ortiz-Moreno, J. J. Chanona-Pérez, L. Alamillla-Beltrán, and G. Gutiérrez López.
Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México.

Properties and Stability of Food and Biological Systems

45. Effect of Water Content on Physical Properties of Potato Chips.
F. Pedreschi and P. Moyano.
Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Chile.

46. Predicting Water Migration in Starchy Food during Cooking.
S. Thammathongchat, M. Fukuoka, T. Hagiwara, T. Sakiyama, and H. Watanabe.
Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Japan.

47. Non-Enzymatic Browning may be Inhibited or Accelerated by MgCl2 according to the Level of Water Availability and Saccharide Specific Interactions.
P. R. Santagapita, S. B. Matiacevich, and M. P. Buera.
Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

48. Combined Effect of Cinnamon Essential Oil and Water Activity on Growth Inhibition of Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus flavus and Possible Application on Extending Shelf-Life of Bread.
S. Nanasombat, N. Piumnoppakun, D. Atikanbodee, and M. Rattanasuwan.
King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Thailand.

49. From Water to Ice: Investigation on the Effect of Ice Crystal Reduction on the Stability of Frozen Large Unilamellar Vesicles.
L. F. Siow, T. Rades, and M. H. Lim.
University of Otago, New Zealand.

50. Does Microencapsulation Improve Storage Stability of Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) Ellagitannins?.
P. Laine, P. Kylli, M. Heinonen, and K. Jouppila.
University of Helsinki, Finland.

51. Non-Enzymatic Browning Reaction of Glassy Foods: Characterization of Local Reaction with Independent of Glassy Matrix.
K. Kawai, T. Suzuki, and K. Kajiwara.
 Hiroshima University, Japan.

52. Physical Properties of Protein-Carbohydrate Sheets Produced by Twin-Screw Extruder.
R. A. Talja, K. Pehkonen, K. Jouppila, and Y. H. Roos.
University of Helsinki, Finland.

53. Thermal Transitions, Mechanical Properties and Molecular Mobility in Corn Flakes as Affected by Water Content.
A. Farroni, S. B. Matiacevich, S. Guerrero, S. Alzamora, and M. P. Buera.
Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

54. Texture of Glassy Tapioca-Flour-Based Baked Product as a Function of Moisture Content.
R. Kulchan, P. Suppakul, and W. Boonsupthip.
Kasetsart University, Thailand.

55. Effects of Excipients on the Storage Stability of Freeze-Dried Xanthine Oxidase.
P. Srirangsan, K. Kawai, N. Hamada-Sato, M. Watanabe, and T. Suzuki.
Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Japan.

56. Water Properties in Bread Produced with an Innovative Mixer.
E. Curti, E. Vittadini, A. Di Pasquale, L. Riviera, F. Antoniazzi, and A. Storci.
University of Parma, Italy.

57. Evaluation of Deformation and Shrinking of Potato Slabs during Convective Drying.
R. Campos-Mendiola, C. Gumeta-Chávez, J. J. Chanona-Pérez, L. Alamilla-Beltrán, A. Jiménez-Aparicio, and G. Gutiérrez-López.
Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México.

58. Effects of Different Cut-Induced Micro and Macro-Structural Arrays on Convective Drying of Agave atrovirens Karw.
C. Gumeta-Chávez, J. Chanona-Pérez, L. Alamilla-Beltrán, G. Calderón-Domínguez, A. Vega, P. Ligero, J. A. Mendoza-Pérez, and G. Gutiérrez-López.
Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México.

59. Study of White-Bread Structural-Evolution by Means of Image Analysis and Associated Temperature and Water Loss Kinetics.
 A. Pérez-Nieto, J. J. Chanona-Pérez, G. Calderón-Domínguez, R. Farrera-Rebollo, L. Alamilla-Beltrán, and G. F. Gutiérrez-Lopez.
Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México.

60. Effect of Hydrothermal Treatment on Rheological Properties of High Amylose Rice Starch.
P. Khunae, T. Tran, and P. Sirivongpaisal.
Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.

61. Influence of Glass Transition on Oxygen Permeability of Starch-Based Edible Films.
D. Thirathumthavorn, S. Charoenrein, and J. M. Krochta.
Silpakorn University, Thailand.

62. Molecular Mobility and Seed Longevity in Chenopodium Quinoa.
M. Castellión, S. Maldonado, and M. P. Buera.
Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

63. Analysing Effect of Freeze-Thaw Cycle on Off-Aroma of Pineapple Using an Electronic Nose Technique.
S. Charoenrein and T. Kaewtathip.
Kasetsart University, Thailand.

64. Water Uptake and Solid Loss during Soaking of Milled Rice Grains.
P. Chatakanonda and K. Sriroth.
Kasetsart University, Thailand.

65. Microstructural, Physical and Rehydration Properties of Maltodextrin Powders Obtained by Spray Drying.
A. L. Muñoz-Herrera, V. Tejeda-Hernández, A. Jiménez-Aparicio, J. Welti-Chanes, J. J. Chanona Pérez, L. Alamilla-Beltrán, and G. GutiérrezLópez
Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México.

66.Nanostructures and Minimum Integral Entropy as Related to Food Stability.
L. A. Pascual-Pineda, E. Flores-Andrade, C. I. B. Guevara, L. Alamilla-Beltrán, J. Chanona-Pérez, E. Azuara-Nieto, and G. Gutiérrez-López.
 Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México






Water plays an important role in the structure, functionality, and stability of food and biomaterials. The ubiquitous water molecules are small and simple, yet they possess unusual properties and develop complex interactions with surrounding molecules and compounds. An increasing understanding of water properties and their significance in interacting and regulating chemical and biological systems has led to in-depth research to better understand water's role in food structure and stability. Water-sorption isotherms of foods were first published in 1943, and the concept of water activity as a major control variable in food spoilage was introduced in 1953. ISOPOW (International Symposium on the Properties of Water) was first organized in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1974 (see the Editorial Note for details) to promote the exchange of knowledge between scientists in the field of food science and between scientists whose interests in water derived from different disciplines. Since then, ISOPOW has become an important focal point for scientific presentations and discussion on water properties, such as water activity, aqueous glass transitions, and water mobility as related to food, pharmaceutical, biological, and biomaterial systems.

            This volume is based on lectures, oral presentations, and posters presented at the 10th ISOPOW in Bangkok, Thailand, on 2-7 September 2007. The title Water Properties in Food, Health, Pharmaceutical and Biological Systems: ISOPOW 10 emphasizes the context of research findings presented at the symposium. Part 1 of the book is from full manuscripts of invited lectures and oral presentations and is divided into four sessions. Session 1 deals with water dynamics and its application in food and pharmaceutical systems, with some examples in food powders and dough systems. Session 2 involves water and its influence on food and biological systems. Soft condensed matter, antiplasticization of food polymers, and physical stress on cells are among the topics presented. Session 3 examines the microstructured and nanostructured changes in food, including the measurement of water properties, rehydration modeling of food particulates, water in colloids, and examples of water's effects in confectionary products. Session 4 discusses biomaterial science aspects of water, such as its properties considered by bulk free volume concepts and its role in nonaqueous pharmaceutical systems. The behavior of water in phase transitions, molecular packing, and nanostructure in food systems, along with water in structured biomaterials (as elucidated by marine jellyfish), is discussed in the session.

            Part 2 of the book has been compiled from research posters presented at the symposium in two sessions. The role of water mobility/dynamics in various food products and systems is presented in session 5. Session 6 represents different aspects of current research on the understanding of chemical and physical changes in food and food stability control as affected by water. These two sessions reflect the vast array of investigations and applications of water worldwide.

            It is hoped that these proceedings will provide a useful reference on the water knowledge, its properties, and applications to the scientific community according to the spirit of ISOPOW.


Editorial Note

ISOPOW (International Symposium on the Properties of Water) is a nonprofit scientific organization and a standing committee under the International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST). The first ISOPOW was organized in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1974 through the initiative of Dr. Ron B. Duckworth and Dr. Louis Rockland with the aims to present the state of knowledge on water and its application in food science and related disciplines, to organize meetings and stimulate discussions between academic and industrial scientists, to bring together participants under conditions conducive to the greatest interactions, and to publish symposium proceedings of high scientific quality. In addition to food scientists, biological and pharmaceutical scientists have recognized that water plays an important role influencing structure, functionality, and stability of biomaterials. ISOPOW symposia always include delegates from other fields for cross-understanding and multidisciplinary approaches to the study of water. Each symposium provides multiple opportunities for speakers and participants to share perspectives, address challenges, and develop collaborations to advance understanding in the field of water properties. ISOPOW meetings, held in various locations, reflect the worldwide dimension of ISOPOW and the interdisciplinary characteristics of the subject. Most of the meetings have resulted in the publication of books of proceedings. Previous ISOPOWs were

ISOPOW 1 Glasgow, UK, 1974
ISOPOW 2 Osaka, Japan, 1978
ISOPOW 3 Beaune, France, 1983
ISOPOW 4 Banff, Canada, 1987
ISOPOW Practicum I Penang, Malaysia, 1987
ISOPOW 5 Peniscola, Spain, 1992
ISOPOW Practicum II Puebla, Mexico, 1994
ISOPOW 6 Santa Rosa, USA, 1996
ISOPOW 7 Helsinki, Finland, 1998
ISOPOW 8 Zichron Yaakov, Israel, 2000
ISOPOW 9 Mar del Plata, Argentina, 2004


The 10th ISOPOW's success was based on strong support from the ISOPOW Central Committee. Members of the central committee at the time were

Dr. David S. Reid, University of California, USA, President
Dr. Maria del Pilar Buera, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, President-Elect
Dr. Louis B. Rockland, FoodTech Research and Development, USA, Honorary President
Dr. Imad A. Farhat, Firmenich, Switzerland
Dr. Patrick Gervais, Université de Bourgogne, France
Dr. Miang Hoong Lim, University of Otago, New Zealand
Dr. David Lechuga-Ballesteros, Nektar Therapeutics, USA
Dr. Jim Leslie, Consultant, UK
Dr. Peter J. Lillford, University of York, UK
Dr. Norio Murase, Tokyo Denki University, Japan
Dr. Yrjio H. Roos, University College Cork, Ireland
Dr. Tanaboon Sajjaanantakul, Kasetsart University, Thailand
Dr. Denise Simatos, Université de Bourgogne, France
Dr. Jorge Welti-Chanes, Universidad de las Americas, Mexico

            With suggestions and support from the Central Committee, the scientific program was formulated. The 10th ISOPOW in Bangkok, Thailand included 22 invited lectures from renowned food scientists, pharmacists, and physical chemists from academic and research institution and related industries. From the abstracts submitted, 18 oral presentations were selected and 58 posters presentations were displayed for discussion. The symposium attracted 120 participants from 25 different countries worldwide.

            The participation of young scientists is one of the key successes in expanding the knowledge and enhancing the spirit of the ISOPOW meeting. For the 10th ISOPOW, the Central Committee has granted five travel bursaries to assist young scientists in presenting their finding at the symposium.

            The proceedings of the 10th ISOPOW are the outcome of the symposium, and all author contributions are thankfully acknowledged.

            The symposium was made possible by cosponsorship by the Thailand Commission on Higher Education, Kasetsart University, the ISOPOW Central Committee, the National Science and Technology Development Agency (Thailand), the Thailand Convention and Exhibition Bureau, Nestlé (Thai) Ltd., and several International and Thai food industry allies, detailed in the 10th ISOPOW book of abstracts published by the Department of Food Science and Technology, Kasetsart University, at the time of the symposium.


David S. Reid
Tanaboon Sajjaanantakul
Peter J. Lillford
Sanguansri Charoenrein


It is our pleasure to acknowledge the ISOPOW Central Committee, all session chairpersons, and the local scientific committee for their efforts in reviewing the scientific program and the proceedings. Special thanks are due to Dr. Denise Simatos, Dr. Pilar Buera, Dr. David Reid, and Dr. Peter Lillford for valuable suggestions early in the preparation for ISOPOW 10.

            Appreciation also goes to all local organizing committees, particularly faculty members and staff of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Kasetsart University, for their due diligence in activities required for the success of the symposium. Kasetsart Food Science's undergraduate and graduate students provided symposium attendees with a warm welcome and outstanding hospitality. The students' liveliness and eagerness contributed to a pleasant atmosphere that promoted interaction among the symposium participants.

            We express our gratitude to Dr. Sanguansri Charoenrein, Dr. Utai Klinkesorn, Dr. Parichat Hongsprabhas, Miss Wasaporn Chanput, and Miss Kunwadee Kaewka of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Kasetsart University, for their assistance in preparation of manuscripts for this volume.

            Finally, the Central Committee congratulates the local organizers, lead by Dr. Tanaboon Sajjaanantakul, for a delightful, stimulating meeting.