Water Properties of Food, Pharmaceutical, and Biological Materials





Edited by


María del Pilar Buera

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina


Jorge Welti-Chanes

Universidad de las Américas, Puebla, México


Horacio R. Corti

Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Argentina


Peter J. Lillford

University of York, U.K.



Table of Contents



List of Contributors




This book is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Martine Le Meste who, until her death on February 6, 2004, was Professor at ENSBANA, Université de Bourgogne, France and member of the ISOPOW Central Committee. We recognized, with regret, the passing of Professor Le Meste and the “ISOPOW family” will remember her for her many contributions to our present understanding on the behavior of water in foods and biological systems. 







1.1. Thermodynamics of supercooled and glassy water.

P. G. Debenedetti.


1.2. Water Dynamics at the Surface of Proteins and Micelles: Understanding the Fast and the Slow Components.

S. Pal, S. Chakraborty, S. M. Bhattacharyya, S. Bandyopadhyay, S. Balasubramanian, and B. Bagchi.


1.3. How does water diffuse in carbohydrate glasses?

V. Molinero and W. A. Goddard III.


1.4. Manifestation of molecular mobilities in amorphous aqueous systems: The view from different experimental techniques.

D. S. Reid.





2.1. The effect of microstructure on solvent and solute diffusion on the micro and nano length scales.

A. M. Hermansson, N. Lorén and M. Nydén.


2.2. Probing water-solid interactions in crystalline and amorphous systems using vibrational spectroscopy.

L. S. Taylor.


2.3. Structure-property relationships in low moisture products.

J. M. Aguilera.


2.4. Ice nucleation in bulk and dispersed water. Application to freezing of foods.

D. Clausse, J. L. Lanoisellé and S. Toumi.


2.5. Molecular-level characterization of lipid bilayers in disaccharide matrices and its consequences for cell lyophilization.

J. J. de Pablo, C. Schebor, S. Ohtake and A. Sum.




3.1. Water stress of bacteria and molds from an NMR water-mobility standpoint.

P. Chinachoti and E. Vittadini.


3.2. Water properties and cell longevity.

C. Walters.


3.3. Water and biological structures at high pressure.

J. Welti Chanes, F. San Martín-González, J. A. Guerrero-Beltrán and Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas.


3.4. Viability of Probiotic Bacteria as Affected by Drying.

B. Corcoran, C. Stanton,  S. Miao, G. F. Fitzgerald and R. P. Ross.




4.1 Proteins and lipids can alter the thermodynamic and dynamic characteristics of water at fluid interfaces.

J. M. Rodríguez Patino, M. R. Rodríguez Niño; C. Carrera Sánchez and A. Lucero Caro.


4.2. Studies on molecular organisation at the water interface.

V. J. Morris.


4.3. Stability of cloudy apple juice colloidal particles modeled with the extended DLVO theory.

D. B. Genovese and J. E. Lozano.




5.1. The hydration limit of amorphous solids and long term stability.

D. Lechuga-Ballesteros and D. P. Miller.


5.2. Physicochemical changes in frozen products: glass transition and rheological behavior in frozen starch-sucrose-hydrocolloid systems.

N. Zaritzky and C. Ferrero.


5.3. The mystery of marshmallow hardening.

M. H. Lim, Y. Jia and S. Heenan.


5.4. Beyond water activity and glass transition: a broad perspective on the manner by which moisture can influence reaction rates in foods.

C. P. Sherwin and T. P. Labuza.







6.1. Oral presentations.

6.1.1.      Glass Transition Temperature and self-detaching of maltodextrin films. Effect of molecular weight and composition. F. P. Collares, J. Finzer and T. G. Kieckbusch.

6.1.2.      How protein hydration influences conformation in solution: implications for protein gelation and glass transitions. P. A. Carvajal and T. C. Lanier.

6.1.3. Rheology and microstructure of interfaces stabilized by mixed proteins and surfactants: A computer simulation study. L. A. Pugnaloni, R. Ettelaie and E. Dickinson.

6.1.4. Effect of content and type of binary polyol mixture on physical and mechanical properties of starched-based edible films. R. A. Talja, H. Helén, Y. H. Roos and K. Jouppila.

6.1.5. The dynamics of formation and structure of the water interface by protein/polysaccharide mixtures. R. Baeza, C. Carrera Sánchez, J. M. Rodríguez-Patino and A. M. R. Pilosof.


6.2. Posters presentations.

6.2.1. Mechanical and water vapor barrier properties of gelatin based films as function of the relative humidity, temperature and thickness. R. A. Carvalho, P. J. A. Sobral and F. C. Menegalli.

6.2.2. Thermal analysis and textural properties of frozen french bread dough with different quantities of ascorbic acid. T. G. Matuda, C. C. Romeu, D. T. Tavares, D. F. Parra, A. B. Lugão and C. C. Tadini.

6.2.3. Effect of nutraceuticals on physico chemical properties of sodium caseinate films plasticized with glycerol. E. Lima-Lima, S. Altamirano-Romo, R. Rivas-Araiza, G. Luna Bárcenas and C. Pérez-Pérez.

6.2.4. Behaviour of hidroxypropylmethylcellulose of different molecular structure and water affinity at the air-water interface. O. E. Perez, C. Carrera-Sánchez,  J. M. Rodríguez-Patino and A. M. R. Pilosof.

6.2.5. Drying of Lactobacillus bulgaricus grown at high osmolarity in presence of disaccharides. E. Tymczyszyn and E. A. Disalvo.




7.1. Oral presentations

7.1.1. The effect of high pressure and temperature on the macroscopic, microscopic, structural and molecular properties of tapioca starch gels. E. Vittadini, E. Carini and D. Barbanti.

7.1.2. Characterization of biological products surfaces along drying using fractal geometry. G. F. Gutiérrez-López, J. J. Chanona-Pérez, L. Alamilla-Beltrán, R. Campos- Mendiola, R. R. Farrera-Rebollo.

7.1.3. Effect of vacuum impregnation and microwave application on structural changes during air drying of apple. C. Contreras; M. E. Martín; N. Martínez-Navarrete and A. Chiralt.

7.1.4. Modulation of the hydration of lipid membrane phosphates by choline, glycerol and ethanolamine groups. F. Lairion, S. Diaz, S. Brandan, A. Ben Altabef and E. A. Disalvo.


7.2. Posters presentations.

7.2.1. Morphology and size of particles during spray drying. L. Alamilla-Beltrán, J. J. Chanona-Pérez, A. R. Jiménez-Aparicio and G. F. Gutiérrez-López.

7.2.2. Evaluation of morphological and microstructural changes during air-drying of spheres using fractal analysis as related to spray drying. J. J. Chanona-Pérez, L. Alamilla-Beltrán, R. R. Farrera-Rebollo and G. F. Gutiérrez-López.

7.2.3. Heat transfer units and morphology of particles in spray drying. L. Alamilla-Beltrán, J. J. Chanona-Pérez, A. R. Jiménez-Aparicio and G. F. Gutierrez-López.

7.2.4. Convective drying with tempering of mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) and color changes of final product. S. S. Oceguera, S., J. J. Chanona-Pérez, L. Alamilla-Beltrán, J. Mendoza-Pérez, R. Arana-Errasquín and G. F. Gutiérrez-López.

7.2.5. Modelling of structural and quality changes during drying of vegetables: Application to Red Sweet Pepper (Capsicum Annuum L.). K. C. Di Scala, S. I. Roura and G. H. Crapiste. 

7.2.6. The role of residual water for the stability of protein freeze-dried with trehalose. K. Kawai, T. Hagiwara, R. Takai and T. Suzuki.

7.2.7. Effect of trehalose on the stability and phase transition behavior of freeze-dried liposomes containing cholesterol. S. Ohtake, C. Schebor, S. P. Palecek and J. J. de Pablo.

7.2.8. Subcelullar freezing injury in axis embryos of Araucaria angustifolia seeds. V. H. Panza, V. R. Láinez, S. B. Maldonado and P. Buera.

7.2.9. Thermal transitions of quinoa embryos and seeds as affected by water content. S. B. Matiacevich, M. L. Castellión, S. B. Maldonado, and P. Buera.




8.1. Oral presentations.

8.1.1. Physical structure, water plasticization and crystallization of spray-dried and freeze-dried lactose. Md. K. Haque and Y. H. Roos.

8.1.2. FTIR study of the hydration of sucrose, caffeine and their mixtures in water. B. Rogé, V. Aroulmoji and M. Mathlouthi.

8.1.3. Solute diffusion in biopolymers as a function of water activity using a modified free volume theory. M. E. Yildiz and J. L. Kokini.

8.1.4. Molecular mobility in glassy starch: influence of hydration and sucrose. F. Poirier, M. Tanguy, D. Champion and G. Roudaut.

8.1.5. High-speed observations of the nucleation of ice by power ultrasound. R. C. Chow, D. Atkins, S. Singleton, R. Mettin, B. Lindinger, T. Kurz, W. Lauterborn, M. Povey and R. Chivers.

8.1.6. Relationships between the maximum rate of non-enzymatic browning, relative humidity and structural changes. N. Acevedo, C. Schebor and P. Buera.

8.1.7. Water determination in dried milk products – is the international standard method reasonable? H. D. Isengard, A. Felgner, R. Kling and C. T. Reh.

8.1.8. The impact of water adsorption on the energetics of surface interactions of powders of different crystal forms. M. T. Carvajal.

8.1.9. Water sorption behavior of glycine betaine and the sate diagram of its aqueous system. K. Komai and N. Murase.


8.2. Posters presentations.

8.2.1. Effects of sugar crystallization on nonenzymatic browning kinetics in low-moisture food systems. S. Miao and Y. H. Roos.

8.2.2. Chemical and physical stability of disaccharides as affected by the presence of MgCl2. P. R. Santagapita and M. P. Buera.

8.2.3. Evolution of some physical properties of "aceto balsamico di reggio Emilia" during long-term ageing. P. Pittia, D. Mastrocola and E. Maltini.

8.2.4. Incorporation of solute in the ice phase during freezing. J. Telford and P. Lillford.

8.2.5. Enthalpy relaxation of freeze concentrated sucrose-water glass. C. Inoue and T. Suzuki.

8.2.6. State diagram for freeze-dried plum and glass transitions of plum skin and pulp. V. R. Nicoletti Telis, P. J. A. Sobral and J. Telis-Romero.

8.2.7. Effect of type of amorphous sugar excipients on the preservation of lactate dehydrogenase activity as a function of storage conditions. K. Kajiwara and T. Imai.

8.2.8. The water content effect on the glass transition temperature of low calory candy formulations. A. G. Celeghin and A. C. Rubiolo.

8.2.9. Release of encapsulated aroma compounds from amorphous maltodextrin matrices. K. Jouppila, S. Sundberg, S. M. Miettinen and L. Hyvönen.

8.2.10. Relationship between glass transition curves and sorption isotherms for the evaluation of storage conditions of freeze-dried camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (HBK) Mc Vaugh) pulp with and without maltodextrin addition. M. A. Silva, P. J. A. Sobral and T. G. Kieckbusch.

8.2.11. Water sorption isotherms and water plasticization effect in dried pear. K. Xue, C. González-Martínez, M. T. Chafer and A. Chiralt.






Water Properties of Food, Pharmaceutical, and Biological Materials is based on lectures and papers presented by leading international researchers of the field at the 9th International Symposium on the Properties of Water in Foods (ISOPOW 2004) held at Mar del Plata, Argentina, from September 25 to 30, 2004.


Food materials, biological and pharmaceutical scientists have recognized that water plays an important role on the structure, functionality and stability of biomaterials. The ubiquitous water molecules are small and simple, but they develop complex interactions and present unusual properties for unprepared observers. We thus aimed to overlap areas of different fields of research having in common problems faced by how and why water behaves as it does. The theme chosen for ISOPOW 9 meeting was "Water properties related to the technology and stability of food, pharmaceutical and biological materials". The understanding of the properties of water in foods, enriched by approaches from polymer and materials sciences, and by the advances of analytical techniques, made us to detect unsolved questions and the need to go deeply into them.

About 90 participants from 19 different countries attended ISOPOW 9, the program of which embraced areas of contemporary interest. In each of the seven sessions, there were three or four oral presentations by invited speakers giving 24 invited lectures. There was wide time provided for discussions. From the 89 submitted abstracts, 74 were accepted, and the members of the Scientific Committee recommended 20 of them to be presented orally.

ISOPOW 9 made it possible also the organization of a workshop on ¨Dynamics and relaxation in supercooled fluids and glassy systems”.   This activity was organised with the objective of bringing together postgraduate students and researchers in the area, to generate an environment for discussion of the theoretical and experimental aspects of non-equilibrium processes in supercooled fluids and glasses. The workshop was attended by 20 young researchers and PhD students of different universities and national laboratories of Argentina. Lectures were performed by C.A. Angell (Arizona State University), G. Appignanesi (National South University, Argentina), B. Bagchi (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.), H. Corti (Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica,  Argentina), J. de Pablo, (University of Wisconsin), P. Debenedetti,  (Princeton University), R. Grigera (University of La Plata,  Argentina), T.  Grigera, (University of La Plata, Argentina) and V. Molinero (California Institute of Technology).


Part 1: Invited Lectures

Roberto Fernández Prini presented “Water: a simple molecule and a fascinating liquid” at the Opening Conference. Dr. Fernández Prini is an Honorary Fellow of The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS)), and he gave a general picture from an interesting point of view on some features that are yet not satisfactorily explained to understand aqueous systems at ambient temperature: the role of length-scale to explain  features of the behaviour of hydrophobic solutes, the need to use theories for inhomogeneous fluids to deal with confined aqueous systems. 

Part I of this book (Chapters 1 to 5) is based on presentations from invited speakers.

Chapter 1 covers several basic aspects discussed in Session I, “Dynamics and relaxation in amorphous aqueous systems”, chaired by Dr. Raúl Grigera. This Session served as a start point of the Symposium, before moving to more applied aspects of the following parts.

Several phenomena occurring at different length scales, from macroscopic to molecular dimensions, are covered in Chapter 2, “Role of water in structural and functional properties, from microscopic to macroscopic properties”. These topics were discussed in Sessions II (chaired by Dr. David Reid) and III (chaired by Dr. Anne Marie Hermansson), remarking the usefulness of new tools both for instrumental and computer calculations to solve questions on the behaviour of water in its relation to solutes.

The subject of “Responses to water stress in living organisms. Related new potential technologies” was discussed in Session IV, in which Dr. Yrjö Roos acted as Chairman. The corresponding conferences were included in Chapter 3.

It is interesting to remark that the different contributors of this session covered several aspects of living organisms from innovative viewpoints, on the basis of new experimental and theoretical tools for understanding the response of stressed organisms under extreme conditions.

Special aspects of suspensions and emulsions with especial emphasis on the characteristics of the interfaces were covered in Session V “Water and the structure and stability of microdisperse systems”. Dr. Ana Pilosof was the chairman, and the conferences were included in Chapter 4.

Some of the subjects discussed in Sessions VI (chaired by Dr. Pilar Buera) and Session VII (chaired by Dr. Peter Lillford) were included were included in Chapter 5 of this book, under a general title “Overlapping water relations and material sciences for the improvement of quality products: past, present and future”. Researchers from pharmaceutical and food sciences were gathered to provide a clear picture of recent advances in understanding the preservation of biomolecule functionality in restricted water environments and how to manage the adverse effects of water on sensitive components. In the last Session Dr. Theodore Labuza dedicated a space to the subject “Material science in food technology and pharmaceutics” inspired by Dr. Marcus Karel. Those who were his former students (Theodore Labuza, Jorge Chirife, Yrjo Roos and Pilar Buera) made a combined presentation on that subject.

In this last session it was made evident first, how the main areas of water relations of foods had evolved through the years and second, how several phenomena which could not be explained some years ago can now be interpreted with new tools from polymer and materials sciences.

Part 2: Oral presentations and Posters.

Four special sessions were dedicated to oral presentation and discussion of selected 20 posters. Drs. Jorge Welti-Chanes, Miang Hoong Lim, Norio Murase and Peter Lillford were the chairmen of the oral sessions, which are included in Part 2 of this book. Short papers from posters presentations were also included in Part 2. About these presentations, in his report to the Central Committee, Dr. Lillford pointed out that “Of particular note was the quality of short presentations and posters. The benefit of screening this material by the local organisers was evident, and Central Committee recommends that this practice be adopted in future meetings”.

It was interesting to see how different fields of knowledge (food, pharmaceutical and  biological sciences) are affected by common phenomena, and share analytical tools to solve different problems, and how water is the conducing wire among them.

It was made clear in the whole Symposium that Food Science has broadened its spectrum of subjects and points of view, from basic to applied aspects, from macroscopic to microscopic and molecular phenomena. The combination of efforts from several disciplines has also advantageously enriched the knowledge on water and its relationships with food components.



ISOPOW 9 has been made possible through the efforts of a number of individuals and organizations. 

The International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST) and two Research organisations, the National Agency of Scientific and Technological Promotion (ANPCYT) and National Research Council (CONICET) from Argentina co-sponsored the meeting. The participation of several Ph.D. students and young researchers was made possible by financial support provided by Fundación Antorchas. ISOPOW 9 also received financial support from Decagon Devices, Mettler-Toledo, Bruker, and the local Universidad Católica Argentina, D’Amico Sistemas, Microanalítica and Tec Instrumental. The organising Committee acknowledges the auspices of Universidad de Buenos Aires, Universidad Nacional de Luján and Municipalidad de General Pueyrredón.

The Symposium Programme was prepared by the members of Central and Local Committees. The Editors wish to recognise members of all ISOPOW 9 Comitttees and Session Chairmen for their considerable efforts in the evaluation of papers and for their help in the organisation. All local arrangements were the responsibility of the Local Committee.


ISOPOW 9 Committees

ISOPOW Central Committee at the moment of the event


- Dr. Peter J. Lillford University of York, UK, President.
- Dr. Pilar Buera Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
- Dr. Miang Hoong Lim University of Otago, New Zealand.
- Dr. Jim Leslie Consultant, UK.
- Dr. Norio Murase Tokyo Denki University, Japan.
- Dr. David S. Reid University of California, USA.
- Dr. Louis B. Rockland Foodtech Research and Development, USA.
- Dr. Yrjö H. Roos University College, Cork, Ireland.
- Dr. Denise Simatos Université de Bourgogne, France.
- Dr. Jorge Welti-Chanes Universidad de las Américas, México.


The following Committees have been established in order to organize  ISOPOW 9.

 ISOPOW 9 Local Committee

- Dr. Pilar Buera
Departamento de Industrias, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires.
- Dr. Horacio Corti
* Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Buenos Aires.
- Dr. Beatriz Elizalde FCEYN, Universidad de Buenos Aires.
- Dr. Sara Maldonado
* Depto. de Biología, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires.
- Dr. Florencia Mazzobre
* Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Buenos Aires.
- Dr. Ana Pilosof * Departamento de Industrias, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires.
- Dr. Carolina Schebor * Depto. de Industrias, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires.
(*)members of CONICET, Argentina

The following PhD students have collaborated in the organisation: Nuria Acevedo, Martina Catellión, Alicia Gallo, Silvia Matiacevich, Patricio Santagapita, Rosa Baeza, and Oscar Pérez.

 ISOPOW 9 Scientific Committee

- Dr. José Miguel Aguilera Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
- Dr. Pilar Buera FCEy N, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
- Dr. Jorge Chirife FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
- Dr. Horacio Corti Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Argentina
- Dr. Theodore Labuza University of Minnessota, USA.
- Dr. Peter Lillford University of York, UK.
- Dr. Ana Pilosof FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
- Dr. David Reid University of California, USA.
- Dr. Yrjo Roos University College, Cork, Ireland.
- Dr. Denise Simatos Universite de Bourgogne, France.
- Dr. Jorge Welti-Chanes Universidad de las Américas, Puebla, México.
- Dr. Noemi Zaritzky CIDCA, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina.

 ISOPOW 9 International Advisory Committee

- Dr. Amparo Chiralt Universidad de Valencia, Spain
- Dr. Gustavo Gutiérrez Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México
- Dr. Martine Le Meste Universite de Bourgogne, France (Deceased on 02-06-04)
- Dr. Jim Leslie Consultant, UK
- Dr. Harry Levine Kraft Foods, USA
- Dr. Miang Hoong Lim University of Otago, New Zealand
- Dr. Norio Murase Tokyo Denki University, Japan
- Dr. Louis Rockland Foodtech Research and Development, USA
- Dr. Louise Slade Kraft Foods, USA
- Dr. Paulo Do Amaral Sobral FZEA, USP, Brazil


The Editors would also like to record their thanks especially to Drs. Carolina Schebor and Florencia Mazzobre who had collaborated in the preparation of manuscripts for this volume and to Drs. E.A. Disalvo, R. Hartel and D.E. Lechuga-Ballesteros for their help to ISOPOW 9 Committees in the reviewing process.

Candies provided by Nestlé Argentina and especial discounts from Aerolíneas Argentinas are appreciated.

Water Properties of Food, Pharmaceutical, and Biological Materials</= title> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:DocumentProperties> <o:Author>Carolina</o:Author> <o:LastAuthor>simatos</o:LastAuthor> <o:Revision>2</o:Revision> <o:TotalTime>184</o:TotalTime> <o:La